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How to Read DMARC Reports in 2023: A Comprehensive Guide

Email security has become a paramount concern for businesses worldwide. With cybercriminals relentlessly targeting company domains, the need for a robust email authentication system is more urgent than ever. Enter DMARC, or Domain-based Message Authentication, Reporting, and Conformance – a powerful protocol that helps businesses combat email spoofing and phishing attacks. But how can you harness the full potential of DMARC to safeguard your domain and improve email deliverability? The answer lies in understanding and effectively utilizing DMARC reports, specifically learning how to read DMARC reports.

In this comprehensive guide, we delve into DMARC reports, uncover the different types of reports, and explore how to enable and analyze them for optimal email security. We will also discuss DMARC best practices, the impact of DMARC on email deliverability and sender reputation, and achieving DMARC compliance to meet regulatory requirements. So, let’s get started on this journey to bolster your email security and protect your domain from malicious threats by mastering how to read DMARC reports.

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Understanding DMARC and Its Importance

At its core, DMARC is an email authentication protocol designed to protect organizations from malicious emails using based message authentication reporting and DMARC authentication. By utilizing Sender Policy Framework (SPF) and DomainKeys Identified Mail (DKIM) – two powerful email authentication protocols – DMARC can effectively prevent email spoofing, phishing attacks, and enhance email deliverability. Implementing a DMARC policy and regularly reviewing and acting upon the insights provided by DMARC reports is key to achieving this. To ensure the best results, it’s essential to read DMARC reports and adjust your strategy accordingly.

So, what makes DMARC such a vital component of email security? The answer lies in its ability to facilitate the prevention of email spoofing and phishing attacks, in addition to enhancing email deliverability. When domain owners implement DMARC and keep track of the generated reports, they gain valuable insights into email sending volumes, sources, and authentication results. This information is invaluable in detecting unauthorized senders, ensuring email deliverability, and ultimately, protecting your domain from being exploited by cybercriminals.

Types of DMARC Reports: Aggregate and Forensic

Familiarizing yourself with the two types of DMARC reports, aggregate and forensic, will deepen your understanding of your domain’s email security. While both types of reports are transmitted in similar file formats, they provide distinct data to domain owners.

Aggregate reports offer a summary of email authentication results, while forensic reports furnish detailed information on individual failed emails using domain based message authentication. With authentication reporting and conformance, organizations can better understand and improve their email security measures.

Aggregate Reports

Aggregate reports play a crucial role in providing insights into email authentication status, including DMARC, SPF, and DKIM results. These reports, provided in XML format with xml version 1.0 encoding, contain data about all emails that have gone through the authentication process. Domain owners can monitor their email traffic and confirm the identity of senders by analyzing a DMARC aggregate report.

The information included in DMARC aggregate reports is vital for understanding your domain’s email security. These reports use domain based message authentication to provide insights into email security, including messages that have failed either SPF or DKIM checks and do not have any other issues. A secure email environment can be maintained and domain owners can stay alert against unauthorized use by routine review of aggregate reports.

Forensic Reports

Forensic reports, on the other hand, delve deeper into individual email messages that have not been successfully authenticated by DMARC. These reports provide comprehensive information, including the full email message, details regarding authentication status, and the cause of failure. Examining forensic reports allows domain owners to identify DMARC evaluation issues, correct them, and take necessary action to secure their domain.

The importance of regularly reviewing DMARC failure reports cannot be overstated, as doing so helps domain owners:

  • Identify and resolve authentication issues

  • Gather detailed information on individual failed emails

  • Aid in efficient analysis and resolution of authentication issues

  • Create a more secure email environment

  • Better protect against potential cyber threats

Why Do You Need DMARC Reports?

DMARC reports are not just a useful tool for understanding your domain’s email security – they’re essential for ensuring the integrity of your email communications. By monitoring email authentication, detecting unapproved senders, optimizing email deliverability, and adhering to regulatory standards, DMARC reports play a pivotal role in protecting your business from cyber threats. Learning how to read DMARC reports is crucial for maintaining your email security.

Furthermore, DMARC reports offer a comprehensive overview of your domain infrastructure, identify illegitimate emails claiming to originate from your domain, and suggest the necessary configurations and issues to address. With this information at your fingertips, you can take informed decisions regarding your email security setup and systems, as well as monitor the performance of DMARC, SPF, and DKIM authentication protocols.

In essence, DMARC reports provide the foundation for a secure email environment that ultimately safeguards your business and its reputation.

Enabling DMARC Reports: Creating and Publishing a DMARC Record

Setting up and turning on DMARC is a vital move towards leveraging their full potential to strengthen your email security. To enable DMARC reports, you’ll need to create and publish a DMARC record within your domain’s DNS settings. As the domain owner, you are the only authorized party to publish a DMARC record and establish the associated policy.

When creating your DMARC record, you’ll need to define and configure the “rua” tag with the relevant email address for report delivery. This tag activates DMARC reporting and enables you to receive DMARC reports directly to your designated email address. With your DMARC record properly configured, you’ll be well-equipped to monitor and analyze the wealth of information provided by DMARC reports, ensuring a secure and effective email authentication system.

Decoding DMARC Reports: A Step-by-Step Guide

With DMARC reporting enabled, it’s time to delve into the reports. Decoding DMARC reports may seem daunting at first, but with a step-by-step guide, you’ll be on your way to understanding and interpreting these valuable insights in no time.

DMARC reports provide a wealth of information about email traffic and authentication results, offering insights into potential issues and unauthorized email sending. However, deciphering these XML-formatted reports can be a bit tricky without a guide. Let’s delve into a step-by-step process to read and understand DMARC reports effectively.

Step 1: Receiving the Report

  • Set Up an Email Address: Ensure you have a dedicated email address set in your DMARC record (using the rua tag) to receive aggregate reports.

  • Collect Reports: DMARC reports will be sent by mail servers that receive emails from your domain. Ensure your mailbox is set to accept XML files, as DMARC reports are typically sent in this format.

Step 2: Understanding the Report Structure

  • Report Header: This section provides general information about the report, such as the reporting organization, report ID, and the date range covered by the report.

  • Policy Published: Details the DMARC policy as published in your DNS, including the requested policy, subdomain policy, and percentage of messages to which the policy is applied.

  • Record: This section contains the bulk of the data, including IP addresses of sending servers, message counts, and authentication results.

Step 3: Analyzing Authentication Results

  • IP Address: Identify the IP addresses sending emails on behalf of your domain.

  • Message Count: Observe the number of messages sent from each IP address.

  • DKIM and SPF Results: Check whether DKIM and SPF pass or fail. Note the domain and result for each authentication method.

  • DMARC Result: Check whether the DMARC check passes or fails for each IP address.

Step 4: Identifying Issues and Anomalies

  • Unexpected IP Addresses: Look for IP addresses that shouldn’t be sending emails on behalf of your domain.

  • Authentication Failures: Identify messages that failed SPF, DKIM, or DMARC checks and investigate the reasons for failure.

  • Alignment Issues: Check for any misalignments in the SPF and DKIM results, which could indicate misconfigurations or spoofing attempts.

Step 5: Taking Action

  • Whitelist IPs: Ensure all legitimate IP addresses are authorized in your SPF record.

  • Investigate Failures: Look into the reasons behind authentication failures and rectify issues such as misconfigurations or incorrect DKIM signatures.

  • Address Unauthorized Sending: Investigate unexpected IP addresses and take necessary actions, such as updating your DMARC policy to ‘quarantine’ or ‘reject’ to handle unauthorized emails.

Step 6: Continuous Monitoring

  • Regular Review: Make it a practice to regularly review DMARC reports to stay abreast of your email authentication status.

  • Update Records: Ensure SPF, DKIM, and DMARC records are updated whenever there are changes in your email sending infrastructure.

  • Enhance Security: Consider implementing additional security measures, such as BIMI, to further enhance email security and brand recognition.

Step 7: Utilizing DMARC Analysis Tools

  • Automate Analysis: Consider using DMARC analysis tools to automate the process of reading and interpreting DMARC reports.

  • Visualize Data: Utilize visualization tools to graphically represent data from DMARC reports, making it easier to identify trends and issues.

  • Alerts: Set up alerts for anomalies or issues detected in DMARC reports to address problems promptly.

Utilizing DMARC Report Analyzers: Simplifying the Process

Though crucial, understanding and interpreting DMARC reports can be time-consuming and complex. Thankfully, there are DMARC report analyzers available to help simplify the process. Tools like GlockApps, EasyDMARC, and MailerCheck can assist you in making sense of DMARC reports by providing user-friendly interfaces and actionable insights.

These analyzers not only make it easier to read and understand DMARC reports but also offer additional features like:

By utilizing DMARC report analyzers, you can streamline the process of monitoring and analyzing your DMARC reports, freeing up valuable time to focus on other aspects of your business and ensuring your email communications remain secure.

DMARC Best Practices for Optimal Email Security

Maintaining a secure email environment necessitates the implementation of DMARC best practices. To optimize your email security, it’s important to monitor DMARC reports regularly, enforce DMARC policies, and collaborate with email service providers.

By adhering to these best practices, you can:

  • Validate that only authorized senders are utilizing your domain

  • Detect any unauthorized use of your domain

  • Ensure that your email communications remain secure and compliant with industry regulations

As your business continues to grow, maintaining a strong commitment to DMARC best practices will serve as a solid foundation for your email security strategy, ultimately safeguarding your domain and protecting your reputation.

The Impact of DMARC on Email Deliverability and Sender Reputation

DMARC implementation can have a significant impact on your email deliverability and sender reputation. By providing ISPs with guidance on how to handle emails based on authentication level or spam score, DMARC can help ensure that your messages reach their intended recipients.

Furthermore, implementing DMARC can positively influence your domain reputation and sender score by providing ISPs with clear instructions on how to handle emails based on authentication level or spam score. This can lead to improved email deliverability and a higher likelihood of your messages reaching their intended recipients, especially when using a reliable email service provider.

In short, investing in DMARC implementation is a wise decision that can yield significant benefits for your email security and overall business success.

Achieving DMARC Compliance: Meeting Regulatory Requirements

For businesses in sectors like healthcare and finance, where email security regulations are stringent, DMARC compliance is of the utmost importance. Regularly monitoring and analyzing DMARC reports can provide evidence of compliance and help maintain a secure email environment.

By achieving DMARC compliance, you’re not only meeting regulatory requirements but also taking proactive steps to protect your business from potential cyber threats. With a robust DMARC implementation in place, you can:

  • Demonstrate your commitment to email security

  • Instill confidence in your clients and customers

  • Safeguard your business’s reputation and success in the long run.


DMARC reports are a powerful tool for enhancing email security and protecting your domain from unauthorized use. By understanding the different types of DMARC reports, enabling and analyzing them, and implementing best practices, you can bolster your email security and ensure the integrity of your email communications. DMARC implementation not only improves email deliverability and sender reputation but also helps businesses achieve compliance with industry regulations. With a solid understanding of DMARC reports and a commitment to implementing best practices, you can take control of your email security and safeguard your business’s success in the digital age.